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The earthwork shall be classified under the following categories and measured separately for each category:

(a) All kind of soils: Generally any strata, such as sand, gravel, loam, clay, mud, black cotton moorum, shingle, river or nallah bed boulders, siding of roads, paths etc. and hard core, macadam surface of any description (water bound, grouted tarmac etc.), lime concrete mud concrete and their mixtures which for excavation yields to application of picks, showels, jumper, sacrifiers, ripper and other manual digging implements.

(b) Ordinary rock: Generally any rock which can be excavated by splitting with crow bars or picks and does not require blasting, wedging or similar means for excavation such as lime stone, sand stone, hard laterite, hard conglomerate and un-reinforced cement concrete below ground level. If required light blasting may be resorted to for loosening the materials but this will not in any way entitle the material to be classified as ‘Hard rock’.

(c) Hard rock: Generally any rock or boulder for the excavation of which blasting is required such as quartzite, granite, basalt, reinforced cement concrete (reinforcement to be cut through but not separated from concrete) below ground level and the like.

(d) Hard rock (blasting prohibited): Hard rock requiring blasting as described under (c) but where the blasting is prohibited for any reason and excavation has to be carried out by chiseling, wedging, use of rock hammers and cutters or any other agreed method.



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